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Full text of "Rapid Population Growth Consequences And Policy Implications"

TABLE 4
Percentage Distribution of Ghana Rural Respondents over 20 Years of Age in Each Educational Group by Migration Classification and Sex, 1963
(percent)
Highest Level of Education Reacheda				
			Extended	
		Limited	Primary	Secondary
Sex and Migration		Primary	and Middle	Schooling and
Classification	None	Schooling	Schooling	University
MALE (3,748 respondents)				
Never migrated:				
No plans	65	59	38	17
Planning to do so	4	7	9	8
Ever a seasonal migrant	8	12	9	18
Ever a long-term absentee	19	19	40	49
Visiting; other; no entry	4	3	4	8
Total	100	100	100	100
FEMALE (3,713 respondents)				
Never migrated:				
No plans	77	65	39	26
Planning to do so	3	5	10	13
Ever a seasonal migrant	4	8	8	18
Ever a long-term absentee	12	20	38	43
Visiting; other, no entry	4	2	5	0
Total	100	100	100	100
aln this and following tables "migrated" means migrated to urban areas, and current visitors to the town have been put in the residual category because of lack of information about their previous activities.
Source: Caldwell (12, Table 3.3).
Occupational Status
If it can be demonstrated that migrants have higher educational levels than nonmigrants, then it should also follow that migrants to large cities have, on the average, a higher occupational level than the populations from which they originate. The stress here should be on "average," for some migrants will have low occupations, just as they will have low educational attainment. Later, this proposition will be demonstrated to hold for migrants to Monterrey. Speare (38) has an interesting comparison of Taiwan male nonmigrants and male migrants before and after their move to Taichung, as given in Table 5. The comparison of nonmigrants and migrants before they moved is clearly favorable to the latter. Speare also shows that 39 percent of the migrants had schooling beyond the primary level, but only 21 percent of the nonmigrants reached this level.ulates out-migration because it forces young people to leave the community if they are to complete their education. Only rarely do rural communities have facilities going beyond primary school. Since higher educational facilities most often are found in cities, the student has little recourse but to go there. Excepting the few specializations in agriculture, his training is such as to prepare him for urban jobs. In short, everything is stacked against the probability that those who attain an education much beyond the average for the population in their communities of origin will remain there.rant selectivity can be seen by reference to Kuznets' concept of "detachment" (36, xxxiii). He believes that detachment facilitates economic progress. "Indeed, we cannot exaggerate the importance of this detachment of wide groups of the population, particularly among the young generation, from family origin andbelief to this effect. Ravenstein (21, p. 199) stated as one of his laws, "Females are more migratory than males," butThe conclusion to be drawn from this is that if economic opportunity and living conditions in the cities were to be improved, return migration rates would he lower.an, et al. (1 3, Ch. 1). Substantively, Ghana differs from Mexico in the predominantly male rural-urban migration, in the multilingual character of the society, in the existence of polygamy, and